Zurich Instruments的UHFQA量子比特分析仪是市场上仅有的一款高速高精度,可并行读取高达10个超导或自旋量子比特的仪器。 UHFQA覆盖的频率宽度高达±600 MHz,并具有纳秒的时间精度。 它拥有2个输入通道和2个输出通道,用于IQ基带操作。 得益于低延迟的信号处理链路(包含matched filters, real-time matrix operations, 及state discrimination),即便是超过100个量子比特的量子计算机系统,UHFQA也能提供支持。


  • 1.8 GSa/s, ±600 MHz 测量范围(单边调制)
  • 可并行读取10个量子比特
  • 可配置的matched filters, signal conditioning, crosstalk suppression, threshold operations
  • 12 位双通道输入, 14位双通道AWG
  • LabOne® 控制软件(Windows、Linux),提供LabVIEW®, Python, C, MATLAB®, .NET环境下的API


  • 超导量子计算(超导量子比特)
  • 量子计算(自旋量子比特)

UHFQA 常见问题

For what qubit types and readout methods is the UHFQA suited?
The UHFQA is designed for readout methods based on pulsed, time-integrated measurement of a radio-frequency signal on timescales from tens of nanoseconds to a few milliseconds duration. This covers dispersive readout of superconducting qubits in a circuit QED architecture, as well as some RF reflectometry methods to read out semiconductor spin qubits.
For what qubit types and readout methods is the UHFQA not suited?
The UHFQA does not have a counter functionality that is typically required for trapped-ion qubit measurement. For these experiments, we recommend the HDAWG Arbitrary Waveform Generator, which combines multi-channel AWG functionality with pulse counter. The UHFQA is also not designed for measurement schemes based on DC voltage or current measurements, nor on methods relying on detecting electron tunneling events.
Can the UHFQA be upgraded with the same functionality as the UHFLI and UHFAWG products (such as lock-in amplifier, PID/PLL, or Boxcar Averager)?
No, the upgrade options available for the UHFLI and UHFAWG are not available for the UHFQA. However, the arbitrary waveform generator of the UHFQA is identical to the UHF-AWG Arbitrary Waveform Generator.
How can I connect the UHFQA to other Zurich Instruments products?
The UHFQA connects to the PQSC Programmable Quantum System Controller with the 32-bit DIO VHDCI interface. This enables transfer of qubit readout results to the PQSC.

The UHFQA can also connect to the HDAWG Arbitrary Waveform Generator with the 32-bit VHDCI interface. This can be useful for basic feed-forward protocols. Due to the different voltage levels (5 V of the UHFQA and 3.3 V of the HDAWG), a voltage divider is required. Please contact Zurich Instruments for further information.

Do I need the PQSC Programmable Quantum System Controller to operate the UHFQA?
No. The UHFQA can be controlled, and its measurement data obtained, with a conventional computer. The measurement data for real-time processing can be transmitted as a basic parallel TTL signal to custom digital electronics, just as well as to the PQSC.
Do I need the HDAWG Arbitrary Waveform Generator to operate the UHFQA?
No. The UHFQA can be triggered by any conventional AWG or by an internal trigger source.
What software do I need to operate the UHFQA?
The UHFQA comes with the LabOne software including APIs for Python, LabVIEW, MATLAB, C, and .NET. A Python driver for the open-source QuCoDeS measurement framework is available, however this driver is not maintained by Zurich Instruments. The Python APIs examples delivered with the software are guided by the qubit readout application and enable fast integration into other measurement frameworks.
What is the purpose of the Signal Conditioning matrix (2x2 real)?
Its purpose is to compensate for signal crosstalk and IQ mixer phase imbalance.
What is the purpose of the Rotation matrices (10 times 2x2 real)?
Their purpose is to transform the signal after the integration for each qubit such that the signal is in one signal quadrature only.
What is the purpose of the Crosstalk Suppression matrix (10x10 complex)?
Its purpose is to eliminate effects of unwanted coupling between circuit elements on the quantum computing chip, e.g., coupling from one qubit to the readout resonator of another qubit.





UHFQA通过脉冲式测量,得到被测系统的透过幅度和相位。 可以采用Pulse shaping和Matched filtering两种方法来获得最大的信噪比。 即便是针对响应较慢的系统,也可使用AWG的Pulse shaping用来最小化振铃时间。 每个滤波器有一个对应的权函数,通过对4kSa深度的权函数进行编程,使得UHFQA的数字滤波器的阶跃响应能够匹配系统的瞬态响应。 与简单的无加权积分相比,应用合适的Matched filter可以显著提高信噪比。


在单根微波线路上测量10个量子比特,意味着能够优化制冷器的电子放大器链路。 可重配置的10×10 信号处理矩阵能够系统化的抑制串扰,可以降低对器件制备的要求。 与Zurich Instruments的HDAWG配合使用,只需几台UHFQA就能搭建出量子栈中量子比特控制和读取的完全同步的仪器层。 低延迟的32位DIO接口可以用于量子纠错中的多量子比特前馈控制。


UHFQA由LabOne®软件控制,并提供Python, LabVIEW®, MATLAB®, 和.NET下的API支持。 在Python中的附加范例库,能非常方便地集成到测试软件框架中。 得益于LabOne数据服务器提供的数据结构和处理功能,软件组合的用户部分依旧保持紧凑并且易于维护。


UHFQA Specifications

Qubit Measurement Unit
Filter memory 4096 Sa/channel
Real-time matrix operations 1× deskew (2×2 real)
10× rotation (2×2 real)
1x crosstalk suppression (10×10 complex)
Matrix elements range -1 to +1
resolution <20e-6
Data logger memory 1 MSa
max. 217 averages
Monitoring scope memory 4096 Sa/channel, 2 channels
Monitoring scope averaging max. 215 averages
Statistics unit count number of logical 1 in bit pattern
count number of transitions in bit pattern
UHF Signal Inputs
Frequency range DC to 600 MHz
Input impedance 50 Ω or 1 MΩ || 18 pF
Input voltage noise 4 nV/√Hz above 100 kHz
Input ranges ±10 mV to ±1.5 V
A/D conversion 12 bit, 1.8 GSa/s
Arbitrary Waveform Generator
Channels 2
Markers 2/channel
D/A conversion 14 bit, 1.8 GSa/s
Output ranges ±150 mV, ±1.5 V (high-impedance load)
-12.5 dBm, +7.5 dBm (50 Ω load)
Waveform memory 128 MSa/channel (main)
32 kSa/channel (cache)

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